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托福阅读推论题的解题技巧中,Key word的选择是关键

2018.11.09

  我们在复习备考托福阅读的时候,对于考试中出现的各种题型,需要熟练的掌握题型的特点,正确判断题型类型,才能够辅助我们更好的利用技巧来解题。今天我们重点来讲解的是托福阅读推论题的解题方法。
  
  托福阅读的推论类型题目的特点就是:四个选项在原文中都没有被明显说明,所以做起来有一定难度。但是所有的题目都是在文中有强烈的暗示,即:你肯定能从文章中推断出来!关于托福阅读推论题的特点可以参考托福阅读推论题解题方法:寻找key word,然后看key word所在的句子,如果得不到有效信息,看它所在句子的前一句,再看它所在句子的后一句。
  
  应用示例:Passage excerpt:"... The nineteenth century brought with it a burst of new discoveries and inventions that revolutionized the candle industry and made lighting available to all. In the early-to-mid-nineteenth century, a process was developed to refine tallow (fat from animals) with alkali and sulfuric acid. The result was a product called stearin. Stearin is harder and burns longer than unrefined tallow. This breakthrough meant that it was possible to make tallow candles that would not produce the usual smoke and rancid odor. Stearins were also derived from palm oils, so vegetable waxes as well as animal fats could be used to make candles…"
  
  Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about candles before the nineteenth
  
  century?
  
  A. They did not smoke when they were burned.
  
  B. They produced a pleasant odor as they burned.
  
  C. They were not available to all.
  
  D. They contained sulfuric acid.
  
  解析:首先是寻找Key word,所谓的Key word,最好具备两个条件
  
  一,不能被替换,如果你找can作为的你key word,文中太多了,而且可以被替换,一般来说,特殊性的名词是不容易被替换的,比如caterpillar,你甚至找不到第二个词来解释毛毛虫这个专业的术语。
  

  二,独特,何谓独特,最后是特别有特点的词,第一个有特点的就是组合词,中间有横杠的那种,比如这道题目,如果关键词是early-to-mid-nineteenth的话,我相信大家第一眼就能看见了,当然这样的词毕竟少,第二种就是数字或数词,比如如果题目中把nineteenth全部替换成19th,我相信是相当的好找,第三种就是长的词,比如假设题干中出现了photosynthesis,相当长,这样找起来就会很方便,扫一下就能发现。


  


  显然,从题目中可以找的Key word就是nineteenth,为什么不找candles?因为整篇文章都是讲candles,你如果找candles我估计你能找到N个。
  
  然后看第一句和第二句都出现了nineteenth,看第二句写的是early-to-mid-nineteenth ,所以有点远了,就看第一句,把整个句子看好就能得出答案是C
  
  当然这篇托福阅读的题目设置的比较简单,如果我加一个E选项,candles are expensive,这样的话就会有点混淆作用,因为从C选项可能可以推出E选项,因为蜡烛贵,所以not available to all,但是我们不能这样,托福考试推论题只考察的是最表层的推断,比如A能推出B,B能推出C,题目问我们从A能推断出什么,我们只能选择B,而万万不能选择C,这和咱们的四六及思维有点不同,我想这也是造成这种题目容易错的原因吧。
  
  从这个例子我们就可以看出,托福阅读推论题的解题技巧中,Key word的选择是关键,大家如果能够找到Key word就可以分析原文的意思,进而就能得出托福推论题的答案了。